Barack_Obamaハイテク政策


大統領候補とハイテク政策

オバマ政権

大統領候補とハイテク政策

【政権移行チームの組織】

Co-Chairs

John PodestaFormer White House Chief of Staff
Valerie JarrettPresident and Chief Executive Officer、The Habitat Company
Peter RouseChief of Staff、Senator Barack Obama

Advisory Board Members

Carol BrownerPrincipal、The Albright Group/Former Administrator、Environmental Protection Agency
William DaleyVice Chairman、JPMorgan Chase & Co./Former Secretary of Commerce
Christopher Edley、 Jr.Dean、Boalt Hall School of Law/Former Associate Director、Office of Management and Budget
Michael FromanManaging Director、Citigroup/Former Chief of Staff、Department of the Treasury
Julius GenachowskiCo-founder、&verb(LaunchBox?) Digital; Special Advisor、General Atlantic/Former Federal Communications Commission Official
Donald GipsGroup Vice President、Level 3 Communications/Former Chief Domestic Policy Advisor to Vice President Gore
Mark GitensteinPartner、Mayer Brown/Former Chief Counsel、Senate Judiciary Committee
Edward KaufmanPresident、Public Strategies/Former Chief of Staff、Senator Joseph Biden
Janet NapolitanoGovernor、State of Arizona
Federico PenaManaging Director、Vestar Capital Partners/Former Secretary of Transportation and Secretary of Energy
Susan RiceSenior Foreign Policy Advisor、Obama for America/Former Assistant Secretary of State
Sonal ShahHead of Global Development Initiatives、Google.org/Former Treasury Department and National Security Council Official

Transition Senior Staff

Chris LuExecutive Director
Dan PfeifferCommunications Director
Stephanie CutterChief Spokesperson
Cassandra ButtsGeneral Counsel
Jim MessinaPersonnel Director
Patrick GaspardAssociate Personnel Director
Christine VarneyPersonnel Counsel
Melody BarnesCo-Director of Agency Review
Lisa BrownCo-Director of Agency Review
Phil SchiliroDirector of Congressional Relations
Michael StrautmanisDirector of Public Liaison and Intergovernmental Affairs
Katy KaleDirector of Operations
Brad KileyDirector of Operations

Obama-Biden Transition: Agency Review Teams

The Agency Review Teams for the Obama-Biden Transition will complete a thorough review of key departments, agencies and commissions of the United States government, as well as the White House, to provide the President-elect, Vice President-elect, and key advisors with information needed to make strategic policy, budgetary, and personnel decisions prior to the inauguration. The Teams will ensure that senior appointees have the information necessary to complete the confirmation process, lead their departments, and begin implementing signature policy initiatives immediately after they are sworn in.

  • Agency Review Co-Chairs
    Agency Review Co-ChairsMelody Barnes、Lisa Brown、Don Gips
    Working Group MembersSeth Harris、David J. Hayes、Reed Hundt、Sally Katzen、Tom Perez、Ray Rivera、Sarah Sewall、Louisa Terrell、Michael Warren、Tom Wheeler、Jon Wilkins、Jonathan Molot、Lisa Ellman(Deputy Director)、Joani Walsh(Deputy Director)、Liz Fujii(Special Assistant)
  • Team Leads
    Economics and International Trade Team Leads
    Reed Hundt、Michael Warren、Josh Gotbaum、Thomas Dohrmann、James Johnson、Anjan Mukherjee、Gregory L. Rosston、Sylvia Mathews Burwell、Susan Ness、Phil Weiser、Peter M. Shane、Fred P. Hochberg、Ginger Lew、Gary Gensler、Mozelle W. Thompson、Peter Blair Henry、Lisa D. Cook、Nelson Cunningham、Alan H. Fleischmann、Gary Epstein、Larry Harrington
    National Security Team Leads
    Sarah Sewall、Tom Donilon、Wendy R. Sherman、Michele A. Flournoy、John P. White、Robert R. Beers、Clark Kent Ervin、Gayle E. Smith、Aaron Williams、John O. Brennan、Judith A. (“Jami”) Miscik
    Justice and Civil Rights Team Leads
    Energy and Natural Resources Team Leads
    Education & Labor Team Leads
    Department of Health and Human Services Team Leads
    Science、Tech、Space and Arts Team Leads
    Tom Wheeler、Don Beyer、Ralph Everett、Susan Crawford、Kevin Werbach、Lori Garver、Roderic (“Roddy”) Olvera Young、Bill Ivey、Anne Luzzatto、Clement Price、Jim Kohlenberger、Henry M. Rivera
    Executive Office of the President Team Leads
    Government Operations Team Leads
    Transportation Team Leads

Obama-Biden Transition: Policy Working Groups

The focus of the Policy Working Groups will be to develop the priority policy proposals and plans from the Obama Campaign for action during the Obama-Biden Administration. The Policy Working Groups will focus on the following areas: Economy, Education, Energy & Environment, Health Care, Immigration, National Security, and Technology, Innovation & Government Reform

  • Technology, Innovation & Government Reform

    The Technology, Innovation & Government Reform Policy Working Group will help prepare the incoming Administration to implement the Innovation Agenda, which includes a range of proposals to create a 21st century government that is more open and effective; leverages technology to grow the economy, create jobs, and solve our country’s most pressing problems; respects the integrity of and renews our commitment to science; and catalyzes active citizenship and partnerships in shared governance with civil society institutions. The Working Group is organized into four sub-teams: (1) Innovation and Government, (2) Innovation and National Priorities, (3) Innovation and Science, and (4) Innovation and Civil Society.

Blair Levin is a Managing Director of Stifel Nicolaus and serves as the firm’s principal telecom, media and tech regulatory and strategy analyst. Prior to his work as an analyst, Mr. Levin served as Chief of Staff to Chairman Reed Hundt at the Federal Communications Commission from 1993 through 1997. Before joining the FCC, Levin was a partner in the North Carolina law firm of Parker Poe, Poe, Adams and Bernstein.

Sonal Shah heads Google.org’s global development efforts. Prior to joining Google, she was Vice President at Goldman, Sachs and Co. developing and implementing the firm’s environmental policy. She is also the co-founder of Indicorps, a U.S.-based non-profit organization offering one-year fellowships Indian-Americans to work on development projects in India. Sonal also worked at the Center for American Progress on trade, outsourcing and post conflict issues and the Center for Global Development on development policy issues. Sonal worked at the Department of Treasury from 1995-2002 on various economic issues and regions of the world, including Bosnia, Kosovo, the Asian crisis and sub-Saharan Africa. During that time she also worked at the National Security Council from 1998-1999. Sonal received her BA in economics from the University of Chicago and her MA in economics from Duke University. She is on the Obama-Biden Transition Project Advisory Board.

Julius Genachowski is co-founder of Rock Creek Ventures and &verb(LaunchBox?) Digital, a special advisor at General Atlantic, and a member of various boards of directors and advisors. From 1997 to 2005, he was a senior executive at &verb(IAC/InterActiveCorp?), where his roles included Chief of Business Operations, General Counsel, and a member of the Office of the Chairman. Genachowski served at the Federal Communications Commission from 1994 to 1997, including as Chief Counsel to the Chairman. From 1991 to 1994 he served as a law clerk to U.S. Supreme Court Justice David H. Souter, to U.S. Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Jr. (ret.), and to Chief Judge Abner J. Mikva of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. He worked in Congress from 1985 to 1988, for Sen. Charles E. Schumer (then a U.S. Representative), and for the joint select committe on the Iran-Contra Affair. He is a on the Obama-Biden Transition Project Advisory Board.

Group Members

Howard Buffet、David Burd、Dan Chenok、Aneesh Chopra、Jack Chorowsky、Cheryl Dorsey、Joshua Dubois、Judy Estrin、Tom Freedman、Jim Halpert、Mark Johnson、Michele Jolin、Tom Kalil、Kei Koizumi、Vivek Kundra、Don Lamb、John Leibovitz、Bruce &verb(McConnell?)、Andrew &verb(McLaughlin?)、Parry Norling、Beth Noveck、Spencer Overton、Lori Perine、Kartik Raghavan、Alec Ross、Paul Schmitz、Clifford Sloan、Steve Spinner、Marta Urquilla、Chris Warren、Daniel Weitzner、Irving Wladawsky-Berger

  • Economic

    The Economic Policy Working Group is developing policy options and initiatives to enable the President-elect to tackle both the immediate economic crisis and the long term economic goals he set during the campaign. In addition, the President-elect has directed the Transition's Economic Policy Working Group to develop a two-year economic recovery plan that will create or save 2.5 million jobs by rebuilding crumbling roads and bridges, modernizing schools, investing in alternative energy, and providing immediate relief to middle class families.

Daniel K. Tarullo is Professor of Law at Georgetown University. He teaches and writes in the areas of banking law, international economic regulation, and economic policymaking. From 1993 to 1998 he was, successively, Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs, Deputy Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, and Assistant to the President for International Economic Policy. From 1995 to 1998 he was also President Clinton’s personal representative to the G7/G8 group of industrialized nations. Prior to joining the Administration, he practiced law, served on the staff of Senator Edward M. Kennedy, and taught at Harvard Law School.

Group Members

Sara Aronchick、Sara Aviel、Lael Brainard、Brian Deese、Jason Furman、Austan Goolsbee、Madhuri Kommareddi、Lee Sachs、Ian Solomon、Josh Steiner

出典:&link(オバマホームページ,http://change.gov)

【政権移行チームの動き】

  • 政権以降チームの正式名称はObama-Biden Transition &link(Project,http://change.gov/)。その下に経済や技術などの作業部会(ワーキング・グループ)が構成されている。
  • GoogleのEric Schmidtは経済面で参加(member of the Obama-Biden economic transition economic advisory board)政府のCTOになる可能性もあり。
  • 移行チームは、原則としてロビーストを排除(以下ルール)

    ・Federal lobbyists cannot contribute financially to the transition.

・Federal lobbyists are prohibited from any lobbying during their work with the transition.

・If someone has lobbied in the past 12 months, they are prohibited from working in the fields of policy on which they lobbied.

・If someone becomes a lobbyist after working on the transition, they are prohibited from lobbying the administration for 12 months on matters in which they worked.

【Who will be CTO】

オバマ政権は政府情報の公開、ネットワーク・セキュリティー、健康情報の電子化などをCTOで実現すると公約。しかし、キャビネット級の役職か、単なる政府の一部かなど細かい点は明かしていない。そこで関係者はそれぞれに勝手にCTOへの期待項目を考えている。ObamaCTO.org(&link(ホームページ,http://obamacto.org/)) 噂の候補者は以下のとおり

  • Eric Schmidt氏(Google、本人は興味なし)
  • Steve Ballmer氏(Microsoft)
  • Vint Cerf(Google)
  • Shane Robison(HPのCTO)
  • Julius Genachowski氏(技術系作業部会のリーダーの1人)

【ハイテク業界関連】

  • 移行プロジェクトは最近、様々な作業部会に分かれて、細かい政策提言をまとめている。Tomas Wheeler氏(&link(ニュース,http://www.rcrwireless.com/article/20081113/WIRELESS/811139989/1103/wheeler-hundt-join-obama-biden-transition-team))。元CTIA&NCTAのCEOで、オバマ大統領選で資金調達(10から20万ドルを集める)に活躍。同じクリントン時代に活躍したリードハント氏も5から10万ドル集める。両氏は移行チームのハイテク系でアドバイスを与えている。
  • 技術系作業部会(technology, innovation and reform policies)に関係している。この部会は全体として通信行政のエキスパートが多数集まっている。チームリーダーは以下、3名
    • Julius Genachowski(Genachowski is a former IAC executive and the founder of start-up incubator LaunchBox? Digital/a Harvard Law School classmate of Obama’s and former chief counsel)
    • Blair Levin(a managing director and tech analyst at Stifel, Nicolaus & Co., was chief of staff to Hundt from 1993 to 1997)
    • Sonal Shah(the head of Google's philanthropy division and previously served as a vice president at Goldman Sachs where she worked on the firm's environmental policy. )

この作業部会とは別に「the Obama-Biden transition project advisory boardがあり、Both ShahとGenachowskiも同ボードメンバー

(そのほかの関係者)
  • Donald Gips(ormer head of the FCC’s International Bureau and on temporary leave as an executive at Level 3 Communications)
  • Jon Wilkins(who worked at the FCC from 1998 to 1999 and on partial leave as a principal at McKinsey? & Co., also was named to the Obama-Biden transition team’s agency review working group)

【FCCの新体制移行】

政府には100以上の部局・委員会があるが、オバマ氏はFCCに注目し民間アドバイザーを起用した。これは意外な人選。噂では、Henry Rivera氏(元FCC委員)が予想されていた。しかし、利害衝突が予想され、Rivera氏はNSF(Natinal Science Foundation)の改革チームを率いることになった。


民間アドバイザー

CrowfordとWebachの学術人2名を起用してFCC新体制の構想をまとめる。2人は「無線オープン・ネットワーク」の推進で活躍。ハイテク系ブロガーとして有名。 この2人は上記の技術系作業部会(technology, innovation and reform policies)メンバーとなるが、FCCのアドバイスに特化する。

  • Susan Crawford &link(Blog,http://scrawford.net/blog/)

    略歴: Susan Crawford joined the faculty of the University of Michigan Law School on July 1, 2008. She teaches internet law and communications law.

700MHz競売の結果に関する失望のコメント: "Verizon has won spectrum it arguably didn't even need, given its existing spectrum holdings. It retains the discretion to act as a traditional cellphone-model company ― picking and choosing among applications and devices, underselling 'open' devices, and discriminating against traffic that undermines its business model. This isn't great news for the Internet model of access," Crawford stated.

  • Kevin Werbach &link(Homepage,http://werbach.com/)

    略歴: Kevin Werbach is a leading expert on the business, policy, and social implications of emerging Internet and communications technologies.

Werbach is an Assistant Professor of Legal Studies at The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. He is also the founder of the Supernova Group, a technology analysis and consulting firm. He advises companies and writes about emerging trends in communications and information technology. He organizes Supernova, a leading executive technology conference.

Werbach is the former editor of Release 1.0, a renowned industry publication that provides leading-edge analysis of key technology trends for senior executives. Working with technology industry guru Esther Dyson, he also co-organized the annual PC Forum conference. Previously, he served as Counsel for New Technology Policy at the Federal Communications Commission. Called “one of the few policy wonks who really got it” by Wired, he helped develop the United States Government’s e-commerce policy, shaped the FCC's approach to Internet issues, and authored Digital Tornado, the first comprehensive analysis of the implications of the Internet on telecommunications.

Google/Androidなどに関するコメント: "Along with Google Android/Open Handset Alliance, Verizon's open development initiative, and the success of Apple's App Store, this is good news for wireless subscribers in the U.S. For too long we've been stuck with a poor set of apps and features pre-selected by the carriers," blogged Werbach. "However, a series of walled application stores is not the same as an Internet-like open platform. Developers still need to go through the bottleneck of Apple's and T-Mobile's (and soon, most likely, AT&T's and Sprint's and Verizon's) certification process, pricing policies, and so forth. Not to mention that we're just talking about the U.S. here. The U.S. is a big mobile market, but less than a tenth of the global handset total … I'm pleasantly surprised how quickly the major U.S operators are backing off their policies of tightly controlling handsets and applications. The question is whether the shift will stop at walled markets, or move toward a truly open environment."

彼はスカイプ電話の自由解放論者(FCCは2007年始めに、時期尚早と判断)

  • そのほか、Dale Hatfieldもオバマ移行チームにFCC改革を提案

    略歴: Dale N. Hatfield has been an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Interdisciplinary Telecommunications at the University of Colorado at Boulder since April 2002. Mr. Hatfield served as the Chair of the Department of Interdisciplinary Telecommunications at the University of Colorado at Boulder since January 2001. Prior to, he served as the Chief of the Office of Engineering and Technology at the Federal Communications Commission.

浮上している改革テーマ

  • SMSに対する規制 オバマ政権はFCCが「ショート・コード・テキスト・メッセージ番号」に関する規制をおこなうべきとの議論を強めている。SMSマーケティング問題にかかわる。携帯業界は、政府の経営干渉として反発。ネットオープン派は非差別状況を盛り込んだ規制をおこなうべきとの主張を展開
  • ローミング規制の見直し・強化 中小電話会社および僻地事業者は、ローミング規制の見直しを求めている。AT&T、VZCの独占強化でローミング制度がゆがんできた──と主張。また、一地域における無線周波数の占有枠(現在95MHz?)の強化をFCCに求めている。これもオバマ政権は注目している。
  • 集線網の独占状態に着目 集線網(携帯基地局からネットワークセンター)市場をAT&TとVZCで独占していることにThe General Accountability Office(議会の監視部門)が懸念を示す。
  • 合併統合(Consolidation)問題 Reed Hundt元FCC委員長(オバマ移行チームで国際商取引・経済問題をアドバイス)は、在任時代に45MHzに無線周波数の上限を決めた。それが55MHzになり、現在はMartin委員長の元で買収時に95MHzまで拡大された。こうした状況にオバマ政権は懸念を示している。AT&TやVZCが今後、買収をすれば、この上限問題が浮上するだろう。大手による大型買収、ローミング買収の終焉かもしれない。
  • e911の強化(携帯業界は実施に根強く抵抗)
  • 携帯電話の早期解約/ペナルティーに関する規制 州単位での規制に委ねるか。あるいは連邦レベルで消費者保護の法律を制定するか。(民主党は連邦法制定を狙っている)
  • Government Reformはオバマ政権の重要な課題。これはHenry Waxman(D-Calif.)が委員長を務める下院コマース・コミッティーで動かされるだろう。WaxmanはJohn Dingell氏の後任。
  • 放送(特に地上波)に対する猥褻規制は、オバマ政権が重視するうごき。NABとの対立は再燃するか。資本集中排除規制の強化も出てくるだろう。

FCC再編、委員長選びの動き(憶測)

  • Kevin Martin委員長はオバマ氏就任直後にやめなければ、2月のDTV移行後に辞任するだろう。
  • 通信業界弁護士Andrew Lipman氏(&link(Bingham,http://www.bingham.com/Lawyer.aspx?LawyerID=729) McCutchen? LLC)のFCC委員長候補予測

    * Julius Genachowski, who spent time with Obama at Harvard Law Review

* FCC veteran and former Al Gore adviser Don Gips

* former Common Carrier Bureau chief Larry Strickling

* former Florida PUC Commissioner Julia Johnson

* broadcast media owner Richard Reingold.

  • Michael Coppsの見解

    トップレベルの人事が落ち着くまで1〜2ヶ月かかる。その間はFCCとNTIA(National Telecommunications and Information Administration)の人事はそれからと考えるのが妥当かもしれない。

    • その他噂の人物

      移行チームのHenry Rivera氏は最初の女性アフリカン・アメリカンを押す。

      Julia Johnson(a Florida consultant who chairs Video Access Alliance, an advocacy and advisory group for independent, emerging, and minority networks and Internet content providers. Johnson is also on the board of MasTec? (MTZ), a contractor that designs and builds telephone, broadband, electric, and other networks.)

      Mignon Clybum(who has been a commissioner for the Public Service Commission of South Carolina since 1998. After earning a bachelor's degree in banking finance and economics from the University of South Carolina, she worked as a newspaper editor and was general manager and publisher for the local Coastal Times. Clyburn is a daughter of House Majority Whip Jim Clyburn, South Carolina's most prominent black politician. Clyburn declined to comment for this story.)

      元FCC委員長のReed Hundt氏とBill Kennard氏はBlair Levin氏やScott Blake Harris氏を押す

      Blair Levin, who was Hundt's chief of staff from 1993 to 1997. During his tenure, Broadcasting & Cable magazine called Levin ""the sixth commissioner."" Levin oversaw implementation of the historic 1996 Telecommunications Reform Act, the first major overhaul of telecommunications law in more than 60 years. He also oversaw the earliest wireless airwave auctions, the development of digital television standards, and the commission's early work concerning the Internet―issues that remain on the FCC agenda. Currently, Levin is managing director at brokerage and investment bank Stifel Nicolaus (SF).

      Scott Blake Harris, who served as the first chief of the FCC's International Bureau, from 1994 to 1996, and was responsible for international and satellite communications policy and licensing. Currently, he is managing partner of influential law firm Harris, Wiltshire & Grannis, where his clients have included a broad range of information technology, telecommunications, Internet, software, and hardware companies.

      また、暫定委員長として現Michael Copps氏を指名する可能性やJonathan Adelstein元FCC委員を指名する噂もある。

その他

  • 大手電話業界の政治献金
    • AT&Tは&verb(McCain?)候補に少なくとも50万ドルの献金をおこなった。
    • VZCは50万から100万ドルの献金を&verb(McCain?)におこなった。
    • ATTとVZCが支援する政治団体が共和党の大統領選挙に多額の支援を行っている。
  • ハイテク業界はオープン化やR&D減税の恒久化を狙ってオバマを支援。
    • たとえばLarry Lessig(Stanford University) Tim Wu(Columbia University)
    • フェースブックの共同設立者Chris Hughes氏はオバマ・ウェブサイトの構築に協力(a co-founder of Facebook, the social networking site, helped design the Obama website, which served as the backbone of the campaign's massive get-out-the-vote effort)
  • ブロードバンド業界はオバマを歓迎。マッケインはプライベート主導のBB普及施策を主張する。オバマは政府主導のBB普及策(助成金)を提唱してきたから。(小池メモ:ブロードバンドばらまき行政は不況対策となるか?)
  • ネット中立性問題がマッケイン・オバマの技術政策ではもっとも違う部分。オバマは中立性主導で動く。→VoIP携帯サービスなどサービス・コンテンツ系ベンチャーの促進に繋がるだろう。

[2008-11-26]

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